Lesson 18: Urbanisation – Writing Band 8

Lesson 18: Urbanisation

  1. challenge – something needing great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully
  2. compromise – an agreement between two sides
  3. dilemma – a difficult choice between two things
  4. megacity – a very large city
  5. migrant – a person that travels to a different country or place, often in order to find work
  6. overpopulation – when there are too many people living in a particular place
  7. poverty – the state of being poor
  8. setback – a problem that delays or prevents progress, or makes things worse than they were
  9. slum – a very poor and crowded area, especially of a city
  10. adequate – as much as is needed; fully sufficient
  11. booming – increasing; having a rapid economic growth
  12. catastrophic – extremely harmful; causing financial or physical ruin
  13. decent – socially acceptable or good
  14. double-edged – something that acts in two ways, often with one negative and one positive effect
  15. one-sided – not balanced or fair
  16. long-sighted – able to see things clearly that are far away but not things that are near you
  17. overpriced – too expensive
  18. overworked – having to work too much
  19. short-sighted – (1) a person who can only clearly see objects that are close to them. (2) not thinking enough about how an action will affect the future.
  20. staggering – shocking because of being extremely large
  21. address – to give attention to or deal with a matter or problem
  22. aggravate – to make (an injury, problem, etc.) more serious or severe.
  23. deteriorate – get gradually worse
  24. exacerbate – to make worse
  25. exclude – to keep out or omit (something or someone)
  26. flourish – to grow or develop successfully
  27. linger – to stay somewhere longer than expected
  28. raise – (here) to begin to talk or write about a subject that you want to be considered
  29. remedy – to do something to correct or improve something that is wrong
  30. resolve – to solve or end a problem or difficulty
  31. worsen – to become worse
  32. amend – to change for the better; to correct
  33. exclusion – the act of not allowing someone or something to take part in an activity or to enter a place
  34. inclusion – the act of including someone or something as part of a group, list, etc.
  35. rag – a torn piece of old cloth
  36. mount – to gradually increase, rise, or get bigger
  37. scarce – not easy to find or get
  38. cast-offs – things, usually clothes, that you no longer want
  39. ubiquitous – found or existing everywhere
  40. apparel – clothes, esp. of a special type
  41. tradesman – a man who buys and sells goods, especially someone who owns a store
  42. pawnbroker – someone whose business is to lend people money in exchange for valuable objects. If the money is not paid back, the pawnbroker can sell the object.
  43. nascent – in the earliest stages of development
  44. wholly – completely
  45. chronically – in a long-lasting or habitual and problematic way.
  46. disposal – the act of getting rid of something, especially by throwing it away
  47. sewage – waste and liquid from toilets
  48. neglected – not receiving enough care or attention
  49. dust-yard – an example system of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management
  50. immortalize – to cause someone to be remembered for a very long time
  51. spring up – to start to exist suddenly filth – disgusting dirt
  52. merchant – a person whose business is buying and selling goods for profit
  53. bug – (1) a very small insect. (2) a mistake or problem in a computer program
  54. cinder – a very small piece of burnt wood, coal etc
  55. notorious – famous for something bad
  56. hereditary – a quality or illness that is passed from a parent to a child
  57. of the first order – very important; considerable of its kind
  58. in the eyes of somebody – in another person’s opinion
  59. incinerator – a device for burning waste material

Some questions asked in previous IELTS Writing Paper that you would be able to write with the help of the vocabulary in this lesson:

  1. Although more and more people use public transport, some city streets are still overcrowded with traffic. How can this problem be solved? Provide specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.
  2. People are more mobile nowadays. They seldom live in one city all of their lives. Why do you think this is happening? What are the consequences of this trend? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this situation. Provide specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

Previous articleLesson 17: Travel – Writing Band 8
Next articleIELTS Speaking Part 3: The internet and its impact on our social life