Review IELTS WRITING Test 07/09/2019

The charts show the percentage of male and female students choosing science subjects in one university in 1992 and 2012 and the three most popular science subjects which they studied.

Report Plan:

  • Paraphrase paragraph: shows> illustrates; male and female> by gender;
    choosing> who chose
  • Overview/summary paragraph: (1) a higher % of male students chose
    science subjects (2) biology was the most popular science subject
  • Paragraph 3: the first bar chart – report figures and contrast trends for
    male and female students
  • Paragraph 4: the second bar chart – contrast the 3 trends for biology,
    physics and computer science and report figures


The first bar chart illustrates the proportion of students by gender in one university
who chose to study science subjects in 1992 and 2012. The second chart provides
information on the most popular science subjects chosen by these students.

Overall, it is clear that a higher percentage of male students chose science subjects
compared with female students. In both years, biology was the most popular
science subject among students.
In 1992, 46% of male students studied science subjects, but this proportion fell to
34% in 2012. In contrast, whereas only one-quarter of females chose science
subjects in 1992, this increased to 32% in 2012.

Despite a decline from 40% in 1992 to just over 30% in 2012, a higher proportion of
students preferred to study biology than other science disciplines. However, there
was a significant increase in the popularity of computer science among students,
with this figure rising from just 10% in 1992 to 18% in 2012. The figure for those
studying physics remained the same at 25% in both years.
171 words


Task 2:
Increases in the production of consumer goods results in damage to the natural environment.
Why is this the case?
What can be done to solve this problem?

Essay Plan:

  • Introduction: refer to the task question. Write that there are reasons
    for this situation, and there are also solutions
  • Paragraph 2: causes: (1) companies deplete natural resources for profit
    e.g. the search for new energy sources (2) pollution caused by waste from
    manufacturing consumer goods (3) packaging of consumer goods results
    in dumping of plastic waste
  • Paragraph 3: solutions: (1) energy – expand renewable energy – e.g.  wind farms in Europe (2) pollution and waste – research into bio-degradable materials and government action against companies which pollute
  • Conclusion: some causes can be identified and some effective measures
    must be taken to deal with them.


Sample Essay:

It is true that the environment is being damaged and that one of the causes of this is
the growing output of consumer goods. While some reasons can be identified to
explain why this is happening, there are measures which should be taken to deal
with this issue.

There are important ways in which the production of more and more consumer
goods is resulting in an ecological crisis. Firstly, in order to maximize profits,
corporations are depleting natural resources. For example, energy is required for all
production processes, and so the search for oil and gas reserves has led to habitat
destruction as well as repeated oil spills threatening marine life in the oceans.
Secondly, toxic waste is released into our environment in the process of producing
consumer goods, such as dyed fabrics or detergents. Finally, the packaging of
consumer goods to make them look attractive has resulted in a huge volume of
plastic waste which is simply dumped.

Ways must be found to alleviate such environmental problems. In terms of energy
management, public subsidies must be provided for the expansion of renewable
energy. In many parts of Europe, for instance, offshore wind farms now make a
significant contribution to the energy needs of industry. From the perspective of
reducing waste and limiting pollution, there should be research into producing
packaging for consumer goods that is bio-degradable. Governments must also exert
pressure on producers to cut down on emissions from factories and to fine
companies which pollute the land, water or the atmosphere.

In conclusion, while some reasons can be identified to explain this problem,
effective measures are available and must be imposed to make the production of
consumer goods more environmentally-friendly.
282 words


1. Vocabulary from the environment:

  • an ecological crisis
    Meaning: a serious situation that occurs when the environment of a species or a
    population changes in a way that destabilizes its continued survival
    Example: Environmental degradation caused by human activity is provoking an
    ecological crisis which threatens our existence.
  • to deplete natural resources
    Meaning: to reduce the amount of natural resources.
    Example: Timber companies must not be allowed to deplete natural resources by
    cutting down trees without planting new trees to replace them.
  • habitat destruction
    Meaning: the process that occurs when a natural habitat, like a forest or wetland, is
    changed so dramatically by humans that plants and animals which live there.
    Example: The elephant population in the world is declining because of habitat
    destruction caused by human exploitation of the environment.
  • toxic waste
    Meaning: poisonous, unwanted waste produced by factories
    Example: Many species of fish are endangered as a result of the toxic waste dumped
    by industries into the rivers and the sea.
  • to alleviate environmental problems
    Meaning: to make bad environmental problems less severe
    Example: Everyone can assist in the effort to alleviate environmental problems in
    the local community through simple actions such as recycling waste or planting a tree
    in their garden.
  • renewable energy
    Meaning: energy is renewable when it source, like the sun or wind, cannot be
    exhausted or can easily be replaced (like wood, as we can plant trees for energy)
    Example: More funding is required from government funds to help companies to
    develop renewable energy, such as companies which produce solar panels for
  • wind farms
    Meaning: an area of land on which there are a lot of windmills or wind turbines for
    producing electricity
    Example: Wind farms should be constructed in mountainous areas or in the sea, close
    to land.
  • to be bio-degradable
    Meaning: a substance or chemical that can be changed to a natural harmless state by
    the action of bacteria
    Example: Most plastics are not biodegradable, and remain as waste products in the
    environment for thousands of years.
  •  to cut down on emissions
    Meaning: to reduce the amount of gases sent out into the air
    Example: People must be made aware of the need to cut down on emissions from
    their cars if we are to reduce air pollution.
  • environmentally friendly
    Meaning: behavior or products that do not harm the environment
    Example: We can help to protect the environment by using detergents and cosmetics
    that are environmentally friendly.

2. Vocabulary from business and money:

  • to maximize profits
    Meaning: to increase profits to the highest possible level
    Example: The company has hired a marketing consultant to recommend how to
    maximize profits next year.

3. Vocabulary from government:

  • to provide public subsidies for
    Meaning: to give government money to reduce the costs of services or to produce
    goods in order to keep the price low
    Example: In order to promote agriculture that is environmentally-friendly, the
    government should provide public subsidies for organic farmers.
  • to exert pressure on
    Meaning: to use power to influence somebody or something
    Example: Environmental organisations should exert pressure on governments to
    invest in renewable energy projects.

4. Other vocabulary:

  • output [noun]:
    Meaning: the amount of something that a person, a machine or an organisation
    Example: The output of the factory has increased by 10% since the new machinery
    was installed.
  • spill [noun]:
    Meaning: an act of letting a liquid come, or fall, out of a container
    Example: Many seabirds died as a result of the oil spill when the ship carrying the
    oil hit the rocks.
  • to dye [verb]:
    Meaning: to change the colour of something, especially by using a special liquid or
    Example: He dyed his hair, to make it the same colour as the hair of his favourite
  • detergent [noun]:
    Meaning: a liquid or powder that removes dirt, for example from clothes or dishes
    Example: There are now environmentally-friendly detergents that do not pollute
    rivers or the oceans.
  • to dump [verb]:
    Meaning: to get rid of something that you do not want, especially in a place which is
    not suitable
    Example: She found the rubbish dumped outside her door.
  • offshore [adjective]:
    Meaning: happening or existing in the sea, not far from the land
    Example: From the window of her house near the sea, she could see the offshore
    drilling which the oil company was doing.

From IELTS NgocBach