The charts show the percentage of male and female students choosing science subjects in one university in 1992 and 2012 and the three most popular science subjects which they studied.
- Paraphrase paragraph: shows> illustrates; male and female> by gender;
choosing> who chose
- Overview/summary paragraph: (1) a higher % of male students chose
science subjects (2) biology was the most popular science subject
- Paragraph 3: the first bar chart – report figures and contrast trends for
male and female students
- Paragraph 4: the second bar chart – contrast the 3 trends for biology,
physics and computer science and report figures
The first bar chart illustrates the proportion of students by gender in one university
who chose to study science subjects in 1992 and 2012. The second chart provides
information on the most popular science subjects chosen by these students.
Overall, it is clear that a higher percentage of male students chose science subjects
compared with female students. In both years, biology was the most popular
science subject among students.
In 1992, 46% of male students studied science subjects, but this proportion fell to
34% in 2012. In contrast, whereas only one-quarter of females chose science
subjects in 1992, this increased to 32% in 2012.
Despite a decline from 40% in 1992 to just over 30% in 2012, a higher proportion of
students preferred to study biology than other science disciplines. However, there
was a significant increase in the popularity of computer science among students,
with this figure rising from just 10% in 1992 to 18% in 2012. The figure for those
studying physics remained the same at 25% in both years.
Increases in the production of consumer goods results in damage to the natural environment.
Why is this the case?
What can be done to solve this problem?
- Introduction: refer to the task question. Write that there are reasons
for this situation, and there are also solutions
- Paragraph 2: causes: (1) companies deplete natural resources for profit
e.g. the search for new energy sources (2) pollution caused by waste from
manufacturing consumer goods (3) packaging of consumer goods results
in dumping of plastic waste
- Paragraph 3: solutions: (1) energy – expand renewable energy – e.g. wind farms in Europe (2) pollution and waste – research into bio-degradable materials and government action against companies which pollute
- Conclusion: some causes can be identified and some effective measures
must be taken to deal with them.
It is true that the environment is being damaged and that one of the causes of this is
the growing output of consumer goods. While some reasons can be identified to
explain why this is happening, there are measures which should be taken to deal
with this issue.
There are important ways in which the production of more and more consumer
goods is resulting in an ecological crisis. Firstly, in order to maximize profits,
corporations are depleting natural resources. For example, energy is required for all
production processes, and so the search for oil and gas reserves has led to habitat
destruction as well as repeated oil spills threatening marine life in the oceans.
Secondly, toxic waste is released into our environment in the process of producing
consumer goods, such as dyed fabrics or detergents. Finally, the packaging of
consumer goods to make them look attractive has resulted in a huge volume of
plastic waste which is simply dumped.
Ways must be found to alleviate such environmental problems. In terms of energy
management, public subsidies must be provided for the expansion of renewable
energy. In many parts of Europe, for instance, offshore wind farms now make a
significant contribution to the energy needs of industry. From the perspective of
reducing waste and limiting pollution, there should be research into producing
packaging for consumer goods that is bio-degradable. Governments must also exert
pressure on producers to cut down on emissions from factories and to fine
companies which pollute the land, water or the atmosphere.
In conclusion, while some reasons can be identified to explain this problem,
effective measures are available and must be imposed to make the production of
consumer goods more environmentally-friendly.
1. Vocabulary from the environment:
- an ecological crisis
Meaning: a serious situation that occurs when the environment of a species or a
population changes in a way that destabilizes its continued survival
Example: Environmental degradation caused by human activity is provoking an
ecological crisis which threatens our existence.
- to deplete natural resources
Meaning: to reduce the amount of natural resources.
Example: Timber companies must not be allowed to deplete natural resources by
cutting down trees without planting new trees to replace them.
- habitat destruction
Meaning: the process that occurs when a natural habitat, like a forest or wetland, is
changed so dramatically by humans that plants and animals which live there.
Example: The elephant population in the world is declining because of habitat
destruction caused by human exploitation of the environment.
- toxic waste
Meaning: poisonous, unwanted waste produced by factories
Example: Many species of fish are endangered as a result of the toxic waste dumped
by industries into the rivers and the sea.
- to alleviate environmental problems
Meaning: to make bad environmental problems less severe
Example: Everyone can assist in the effort to alleviate environmental problems in
the local community through simple actions such as recycling waste or planting a tree
in their garden.
- renewable energy
Meaning: energy is renewable when it source, like the sun or wind, cannot be
exhausted or can easily be replaced (like wood, as we can plant trees for energy)
Example: More funding is required from government funds to help companies to
develop renewable energy, such as companies which produce solar panels for
- wind farms
Meaning: an area of land on which there are a lot of windmills or wind turbines for
Example: Wind farms should be constructed in mountainous areas or in the sea, close
- to be bio-degradable
Meaning: a substance or chemical that can be changed to a natural harmless state by
the action of bacteria
Example: Most plastics are not biodegradable, and remain as waste products in the
environment for thousands of years.
- to cut down on emissions
Meaning: to reduce the amount of gases sent out into the air
Example: People must be made aware of the need to cut down on emissions from
their cars if we are to reduce air pollution.
- environmentally friendly
Meaning: behavior or products that do not harm the environment
Example: We can help to protect the environment by using detergents and cosmetics
that are environmentally friendly.
2. Vocabulary from business and money:
- to maximize profits
Meaning: to increase profits to the highest possible level
Example: The company has hired a marketing consultant to recommend how to
maximize profits next year.
3. Vocabulary from government:
- to provide public subsidies for
Meaning: to give government money to reduce the costs of services or to produce
goods in order to keep the price low
Example: In order to promote agriculture that is environmentally-friendly, the
government should provide public subsidies for organic farmers.
- to exert pressure on
Meaning: to use power to influence somebody or something
Example: Environmental organisations should exert pressure on governments to
invest in renewable energy projects.
4. Other vocabulary:
- output [noun]:
Meaning: the amount of something that a person, a machine or an organisation
Example: The output of the factory has increased by 10% since the new machinery
- spill [noun]:
Meaning: an act of letting a liquid come, or fall, out of a container
Example: Many seabirds died as a result of the oil spill when the ship carrying the
oil hit the rocks.
- to dye [verb]:
Meaning: to change the colour of something, especially by using a special liquid or
Example: He dyed his hair, to make it the same colour as the hair of his favourite
- detergent [noun]:
Meaning: a liquid or powder that removes dirt, for example from clothes or dishes
Example: There are now environmentally-friendly detergents that do not pollute
rivers or the oceans.
- to dump [verb]:
Meaning: to get rid of something that you do not want, especially in a place which is
Example: She found the rubbish dumped outside her door.
- offshore [adjective]:
Meaning: happening or existing in the sea, not far from the land
Example: From the window of her house near the sea, she could see the offshore
drilling which the oil company was doing.
From IELTS NgocBach