The chart below shows the unemployment rate and the number of people leaving Ireland from 1988 to 2008.
- Paraphrase paragraph: shows>illustrates; the unemployment rate>the % of people unemployed; leaving Ireland>who left Ireland
- Overview/summary paragraph: (1) the unemployment rate fell (2) the number of people leaving Ireland fluctuated
- Paragraph 3: the unemployment rate – report trends and select relevant figures (e.g. the highest and lowest points)
- Paragraph 4: the numbers of people leaving Ireland – report on the fluctuations, contrasting the trends during this period
The line graph illustrates the percentage of people unemployed and the number of people who left Ireland in the period 1988 to 2008.
Overall, it is clear that the unemployment rate fell over the period, despite some fluctuations, while the number of people leaving Ireland fluctuated significantly.
In 1988, the proportion of unemployed people in Ireland stood at its highest figure of 17%. After a steep decline to 13% in 1990, the unemployment rate rose to 15% in 1992. The following years saw a dramatic decline to around 5% by 2000. The percentage of unemployed then remained relatively stable, with a rate of 6% in 2008.
Similarly, the number of people leaving Ireland was also at its peak in 1988 at 6,000. There was then a dramatic decrease to 3,500 in1992. The number then declined slowly, reaching the lowest figure in 2002 of 2,800. By contrast, the figure for emigrants from Ireland increased sharply to around 5,000 at the end of the period.
Some people think that cultural traditions will be destroyed if they are used as money-making attractions aimed at tourists. Others, however, believe that is the only way to save these traditions.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
- Introduction: refer to the 2 views and give my opinion – cultures will be destroyed if used as money-making tourist attractions
- Paragraph 2: globalisation destroys the ways of life and culture of many people e.g the survival of traditional music through commercial concerts/shows
- Paragraph 3: commercialisation will not save traditional cultures (1) this culture loses its meaning e.g. traditional cooking (2) some cultures continue to be part of local life and can survive e.g. Carnival in Brazil
- Conclusion: when traditional culture relies on becoming money-making tourist attractions, it cannot be saved. It is already dead.
It is true that many people argue that cultural traditions will only survive if they are commercially packaged for the tourist market. While this may be the case, I agree with the opposing view that such packaging inevitably leads to the death of those traditions.
On the one hand, globalisation is resulting in socio-economic changes which are destroying traditional ways of life. It is not always possible to preserve cultural traditions in the face of these changes. The changes affect traditional cultures in many ways. For example, folk songs and other genres of music such as American blues reflect a way of life which is disappearing, based on agricultural work in the fields. Without the organisation of music concerts aimed at tourists, this artistic musical heritage will almost certainly be lost, and there will be nobody to perform the traditional music and dances associated with it.
On the other hand, I agree with those who believe that the commercialisation of traditional cultures aimed at tourists will not save those cultures. Firstly, culture becomes meaningless when it is something which is presented to visitors simply to make money. Tourists, for instance, may want to try local cuisine in a restaurant which follows a traditional recipe, but it will not be eaten in the authentic surroundings of the home or served to accompany a traditional ceremony.
Secondly, many traditional cultures retain their vitality despite globalisation. Carnival in Brazil, for instance, is performed and watched mainly by local people, even though television and the tourist industry exploit it as a source of revenue.
In conclusion, I agree with the view that when a culture can only survive by turning itself into a money-making attraction, then that culture is already destroyed. All that remains is spectacle for tourists.
1. Vocabulary from society:
- socio-economic changes
Meaning: changes relating to the society and economy of a country
Example: Mass migration to cities is a result of socio-economic changes include the industrialisation of agriculture.
2. Vocabulary from the arts:
- folk songs
Meaning: songs in the traditional style of a country or community
Example: Traditional folk songs are part of the cultural heritage of a nation or region.
- genres of music
Meaning: particular types or styles of music
Example: Different genres of music tend to be favoured by different age groups, with classical music more popular among the elderly.
- literary and artistic heritage
Meaning: the traditon of writing or painting that a country, city or town has had for many years, distinguishing it as an important part of its character
Example: Visitors to Britain can enjoy the rich literary and artistic heritage by going to such places as the birthplace of Shakespeare and the National Art Gallery in London.
3. Vocabulary from food and diet:
- Chinese cuisine
Meaning: A type of food that is traditional in China – you can write ‘Italian cuisine/Vietnamese cuisine’ in the same way
Example: Chinese cuisine is an important part of the traditional culture of the country.
- to follow a recipe
Meaning: to cook a meal using instructions
Example: Whether you follow a recipe or make something up as you go along, I think cooking is a very creative pastime.
4. Vocabulary from business and money:
Meaning: the money that a government receives from taxes or which a company receives from its business
Example: The tax revenues of the government have fallen as a result of the economic crisis.
5. Other vocabulary:
- in the face of [expression]:
Meaning: despite problems, difficulties
Example: The President had to abandon his plan in the face of opposition from his ministers.
- meaningless [adjective]:
Meaning: without any reason or purpose, and therefore not worth doing
Example: Her job was boring, doing meaningless tasks all day.
- authentic [adjective]:
Meaning: known to be real and genuine
Example: She wrote an authentic report of her life in the desert.
- vitality [noun]:
Meaning: energy and enthusiasm
Example: The concert was performed with such vitality that everyone enjoyed it.
- spectacle [noun]:
Meaning: a performance or event that is impressive to look at
Example: The military parade was a memorable spectacle, which was intended to impress the crowd.